Doctoral Research Methods
Instructor/Facilitator: Bryan W. Griffin
My personal web pages can be found at http://coe.georgiasouthern.edu/foundations/bwgriffin/
Course Index (check frequently for alterations)
A. Course Administration
B. Activities that count toward course grade
Andy Field, of the University of Sussex, has students complete a similar project. His instructions provide useful insight into the steps one must take to develop a questionnaire. I recommend you review his project instructions to see steps that must be taken to develop an instrument:
Design a Questionnaire
C. Activities that do not count toward course grade
D. Course Notes
Review of basics (taken from EDUR 7130, Introduction to Educational Research); only a few of these will be highlighted in the chat session
Read: For review of basics of research, see de Vaus text chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13 (section on levels of measurement), 14 (section on graphs), and 15 (sections on t-test and correlation)
For the de Vaus text, read chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13 (section on levels of measurement), 14 (section on graphs), and 15 (sections on t-test and correlation) to cover the material listed above.
E. SPSS Tutorials (obtained from various on-line sources: Dr. McKnight at U. Oklahoma, Dr. Elvers at U. of Dayton, Guang-Hwa Change at Youngstown State U.)
F. PDF File Creation
Since groups will be required to submit this project, I will only accept PDF attachments from one individual in each group. See detailed instructions on this in the Research Project link above. If you do not know how to create a PDF file, use one of the following sources:
Here are a few free web page that convert files to PDF over the internet:
I use the following free software to create my PDF files (it leaves no watermark): http://www.primopdf.com/
I also use OpenOffice to create some free PDF files. Open Office is a free Office Suite similar to Microsoft Office (Open Office leaves no watermark): http://www.openoffice.org/
If you want further tips and links for converting to free PDFs, read this site http://www.pruittfamily.com/paul/freepdf.htm or this http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_PDF_software .
G. Reporting Statistical Outcomes
APA style for t-test, correlation, regression, ANOVA, chi-square:Reporting Statistics (Word document with sample APA styled tables and written presentations).
Add factor analysis.
Note: The material indented with grey background are comments for instructor about content to review for possible incorporation into course. Students should ignore this information.
Assessing reliability and validity of single item measures:
Validity Standards: Validity evidence (Standards Validity Evidence), and these standards (note also steps for questionnaire development): http://nces.ed.gov/StatProg/2002/std2_6.asp
National standards on validity discussion, useful table: http://www.bwgriffin.com/gsu/courses/edur9131/content/validity_new_standards_11539590.pdf
Link between Research Questions and Methods -- (Note to instructor: develop examples; consider design issues)
Course Calendar (NOTE -- calendar under revisions, do not look beyond Session 1)
2. Research Project
3. Review of basics of educational research
Reading assignments can be found in the links above for the supplemental Gall, Gall, and Borg text. For the de Vaus text, read chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13 (section on levels of measurement), 14 (section on graphs), and 15 (sections on t-test and correlation) to cover the material listed above.
4. Literature Searches -- brief review using Google Scholar and GALILEO (search for reading interest measure; also add literature review writing, list vs. integration, early vs. late citations, transitions).
6. SPSS Introduction
(Spring 2011 -- partially completed Questionnaire Development Activity 2 discussion; limited review of basics to variables, hypotheses, LR)
1. Review Activity 1 Assignment (Spring 2011 -- completed through descriptive statistics and
inferential statistics. Resume chat 3 with t-test review.)
1. Review Activity 1 Assignment
(Spring 2011 -- completed through descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Resume chat 3 with t-test review.)
2. Questions on Activity 1 -- Brief review of questionnaire item wording and development; guidelines to questionnaire construction (practical tips)
3. Review of independent and correlated samples t-test (read: de Vaus chapter 15)
4. Review of Pearson's Correlation (read: de Vaus chapter 14)
5. Reliability (de Vaus chapter 11; pp 52-53; pp. 180-186; review "Scaling Checklist" p. 195; William Gabrenya's Reliability)
(a) Stability with test-retest (scores must be correlated, and means should be similar; correlation and correlated samples t-test)
(b) Equivalent forms, brief overview
(c) Internal Consistency with Cronbach's alpha
(d) Scorer-rater; inter-judge agreement -- See discussion below with coding open-ended responses
(Spring 2011 -- covered briefly tips on questionnaire construction, independent samples t-test, correlation, Cronbach's alpha)
1. First draft questionnaire you plan to use for the Research Study is due (fall 09, took about 2.5 hours to review 4 questionnaires).
2. Sample size determination (de Vaus chapter 6; Cohen 1992)
(Spring 2011: Reviewed questionnaires, covered samples size for yes/no, group comparisons, correlations)
1. Note to students: Send revised group research project questionnaire to instructor for final review.
2. Work through internal consistency exercise: http://www.bwgriffin.com/gsu/courses/edur9131/content/cronbachs_alpha_exercise_data.sav
3. Correlated samples t-test (read: de Vaus chapter 15)
4. Reliability: Test-retest
5. Coding open-ended questionnaire responses (conceptual analysis discussed here; see Palmquist 2008 for relational analysis example). Read de Vaus chapter 9, and the following works by Le Compte, Palmquist, Glenn, and Tobacco Control:
6. Begin Regression, see de Vaus' text pp 280-288
Other readings from my course notes in EDUR 8131 (introductory statistics):
SPSS Regression Videos
(Spring 2011: Covered all above except correlated t-test, started simple regression)
1. Resume Regression
2. Review sample size determination for regression; see
Cohen 1992 3. Validity -- Providing Evidence (read de Vaus chapter 4) Read the following articles: Illustrative Examples of Validity Evidence -- for
each, in what ways is validity evidenced? 4. Factor Analysis (read de Vaus chapter 11) Notes on Factor Analysis Additional Readings Reporting Factor Analysis
2. Review sample size determination for regression; see Cohen 1992
3. Validity -- Providing Evidence (read de Vaus chapter 4)
Read the following articles:
Illustrative Examples of Validity Evidence -- for each, in what ways is validity evidenced?
4. Factor Analysis (read de Vaus chapter 11)
Notes on Factor Analysis
Reporting Factor Analysis
(Spring 2011: through regression sample size )
1. Resume material from chat session 6
2. Illustrate group project analysis steps from data collection to final regression analysis
Note to instructor:
Ignore notes below:
Ignore notes below:
5. Reading Research Reports --- t-tests and ANOVA
From "Instrument Construction Steps" activity: Conley, D. T., & Goldman, P. (1995). Reactions from the field to state restructuring legislation. Educational Administration Quarterly, 31, 512-538.
Goodman, G., Hans, S., & Bernstein, V. (2005). Mother Expectation of Bother and Infant Attachment Behaviors as Predictors of Mother and Child Communication at 24 Months in Children of Methadone-Maintained Women. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26, 549-569.
van Beek, Y., Genta, M., Costabile, A., & Sansavini, A. (2006). Maternal Expectations about Infant Development of Pre-term and Full-term Infants: A Cross-national Comparison. Infant and Child Development, 15, 41-58.
Scahill, L., Sukhodolsky, D., Bearss, K., & Findley, D. (2006). Randomized Trial of Parent Management Training in Children with Tic Disorders and Disruptive Behavior. Journal of Child Neurology, 21, 650-656.
Note -- Links to possible Reading Research report tables
Communication in the Course
In this course we will hold group discussions once a week (twice a week during summer terms). The chat session schedule is listed above in the calendar. Group discussions will be held using GeorgiaView Wimba. If you have difficulty accessing Wimba, contact GeorgiaView support. Contact information can be found in the link below:
To access EDUR 8131 GeorgiaView page, follow the link below:
By chance or appointment. It is best
to contact me by e-mail to make an appointment.
Use GeorgiaView to contact me. If GeorgiaView is not working, my regular e-mail address is bwgriffin@GeorgiaSouthern.edu, but please use GeorgiaView for course-related communications.
(Room 2128 College of Education Building): 912-478-0488
Department of Curriculum, Foundations, and Research: 912-478-5091
Department of Curriculum,
Foundations, and Reading
P.O. Box 8144
College of Education
Georgia Southern University
Statesboro, GA 30460
purpose of this course is for doctoral-level students to gain a firm foundation
in educational research prior to the start of their dissertation
experience. Students will engage in an applied research project that updates
their understanding of research procedures (e.g., hypothesis generation,
sampling theory, instrument construction, measurement concepts, and descriptive
and inferential statistics). Emphasis is on the “hands-on” application of
advanced inquiry skills.
(a) de Vaus, D. A. (2002). Surveys in Social Research (5th ed., and 4th or 3rd editions acceptable). Taylor & Francis.
(4th edition on-line)
http://www.ebooks.com/ebooks/book_display.asp?IID=178766# (4th edition on-line)
(b) SPSS will be used in this course. The most recent version can be found and
rented here for ~$35 for
(b) SPSS will be used in this course. The most recent version can be found and rented here for ~$35 for6 months:
Other student options and pricing for SPSS/PASW can be found here:
(c) EDUR 9131 Course Notes, which are available on-line at:
(d) Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996 or later). Educational
Research: An Introduction (6th, 7th, or 8th ed.). White Plains,
Course grades will be based upon the following items and weights:
You may come and go as you please. If you miss a chat/class session, there is no need to provide an excuse.
Students are expected to abide by the GSU student conduct code and
regulations regarding academic integrity. Academic misconduct such as cheating
and plagiarism will be reported to the Office of Judicial Affairs and
appropriate penalties imposed, such as a grade of zero on the targeted
activity. See information on student conduct in the relevant student
handbook for details
Withdrawing from Class
The university sets a specific date in which you may withdraw from a course
without an academic penalty. In this course, however, you may withdraw without
an academic penalty (i.e., you will received a WP) until the last day of regular
class (this excludes exam week), no questions asked, no matter what your current
performance. My policy of assigning WPs is contingent upon the approval of my
departmental chair and COE Dean (i.e., a WP is not guaranteed).
Calendar (will be revised as semester progresses)
on index page (
Note that the Course Calendar may be
updated frequently. See index page for revisions.
Listed on index page ( http://www.bwgriffin.com/gsu/courses/edur9131 ). Note that the Course Calendar may be updated frequently. See index page for revisions.
Class projects and IRB:
Read the following to ensure your
mini-research project meets IRB guidelines
How This Course Supports the College’s Conceptual Framework
The College of Education’s conceptual framework advances the theme of reflective educators for diverse learners. In this course information will be learned that should make each student a more knowledgeable consumer of educational research. With this knowledge you will be better able to critically evaluate current and recommended practices when analyzed empirically.
*** Miscellaneous notes -- ignore material listed below ***
Instructor note: Add links to on-line statistical programs, e.g.,
http://gsociology.icaap.org/methods/resrch.htm (On-line Research Publications)
Copyright © 2005, Bryan W. Griffin
Last revised on 18 February, 2015 01:26 PM